TypeScript

从 v5 开始,Sequelize 提供了自己的 TypeScript 定义. 请注意,仅支持 TS >= 3.1.

由于 Sequelize 严重依赖于运行时属性分配,因此 TypeScript 在开箱即用时不会很有用. 为了使模型可用,需要大量的手动类型声明.

安装

为了避免非 TS 用户的安装膨胀,你必须手动安装以下键入程序包:

使用

带有严格类型检查的最小 TypeScript 项目示例.

import {
  Sequelize,
  Model,
  DataTypes,
  HasManyGetAssociationsMixin,
  HasManyAddAssociationMixin,
  HasManyHasAssociationMixin,
  Association,
  HasManyCountAssociationsMixin,
  HasManyCreateAssociationMixin,
  Optional,
} from 'sequelize';

const sequelize = new Sequelize('mysql://root:asd123@localhost:3306/mydb');

// These are all the attributes in the User model
interface UserAttributes {
  id: number;
  name: string;
  preferredName: string | null;
}

// Some attributes are optional in `User.build` and `User.create` calls
interface UserCreationAttributes extends Optional<UserAttributes, 'id'> {}

class User extends Model<UserAttributes, UserCreationAttributes>
  implements UserAttributes {
  public id!: number; // Note that the `null assertion` `!` is required in strict mode.
  public name!: string;
  public preferredName!: string | null; // for nullable fields

  // timestamps!
  public readonly createdAt!: Date;
  public readonly updatedAt!: Date;

  // Since TS cannot determine model association at compile time
  // we have to declare them here purely virtually
  // these will not exist until `Model.init` was called.
  public getProjects!: HasManyGetAssociationsMixin<Project>; // Note the null assertions!
  public addProject!: HasManyAddAssociationMixin<Project, number>;
  public hasProject!: HasManyHasAssociationMixin<Project, number>;
  public countProjects!: HasManyCountAssociationsMixin;
  public createProject!: HasManyCreateAssociationMixin<Project>;

  // You can also pre-declare possible inclusions, these will only be populated if you
  // actively include a relation.
  public readonly projects?: Project[]; // Note this is optional since it's only populated when explicitly requested in code

  public static associations: {
    projects: Association<User, Project>;
  };
}

interface ProjectAttributes {
  id: number;
  ownerId: number;
  name: string;
}

interface ProjectCreationAttributes extends Optional<ProjectAttributes, 'id'> {}

class Project extends Model<ProjectAttributes, ProjectCreationAttributes>
  implements ProjectAttributes {
  public id!: number;
  public ownerId!: number;
  public name!: string;

  public readonly createdAt!: Date;
  public readonly updatedAt!: Date;
}

interface AddressAttributes {
  userId: number;
  address: string;
}

// You can write `extends Model<AddressAttributes, AddressAttributes>` instead,
// but that will do the exact same thing as below
class Address extends Model<AddressAttributes> implements AddressAttributes {
  public userId!: number;
  public address!: string;

  public readonly createdAt!: Date;
  public readonly updatedAt!: Date;
}

Project.init(
  {
    id: {
      type: DataTypes.INTEGER.UNSIGNED,
      autoIncrement: true,
      primaryKey: true,
    },
    ownerId: {
      type: DataTypes.INTEGER.UNSIGNED,
      allowNull: false,
    },
    name: {
      type: new DataTypes.STRING(128),
      allowNull: false,
    },
  },
  {
    sequelize,
    tableName: 'projects',
  },
);

User.init(
  {
    id: {
      type: DataTypes.INTEGER.UNSIGNED,
      autoIncrement: true,
      primaryKey: true,
    },
    name: {
      type: new DataTypes.STRING(128),
      allowNull: false,
    },
    preferredName: {
      type: new DataTypes.STRING(128),
      allowNull: true,
    },
  },
  {
    tableName: 'users',
    sequelize, // passing the `sequelize` instance is required
  },
);

Address.init(
  {
    userId: {
      type: DataTypes.INTEGER.UNSIGNED,
    },
    address: {
      type: new DataTypes.STRING(128),
      allowNull: false,
    },
  },
  {
    tableName: 'address',
    sequelize, // passing the `sequelize` instance is required
  },
);

// Here we associate which actually populates out pre-declared `association` static and other methods.
User.hasMany(Project, {
  sourceKey: 'id',
  foreignKey: 'ownerId',
  as: 'projects', // this determines the name in `associations`!
});

Address.belongsTo(User, { targetKey: 'id' });
User.hasOne(Address, { sourceKey: 'id' });

async function doStuffWithUser() {
  const newUser = await User.create({
    name: 'Johnny',
    preferredName: 'John',
  });
  console.log(newUser.id, newUser.name, newUser.preferredName);

  const project = await newUser.createProject({
    name: 'first!',
  });

  const ourUser = await User.findByPk(1, {
    include: [User.associations.projects],
    rejectOnEmpty: true, // Specifying true here removes `null` from the return type!
  });

  // Note the `!` null assertion since TS can't know if we included
  // the model or not
  console.log(ourUser.projects![0].name);
}

使用非严格类型

Sequelize v5 的类型允许你定义模型而无需指定属性类型. 对于向后兼容以及在你觉得对属性进行严格检查是不值得的情况下, 这仍然是可行的.

import { Sequelize, Model, DataTypes } from 'sequelize';

const sequelize = new Sequelize('mysql://root:asd123@localhost:3306/mydb');

class User extends Model {
  public id!: number; // Note that the `null assertion` `!` is required in strict mode.
  public name!: string;
  public preferredName!: string | null; // for nullable fields
}

User.init(
  {
    id: {
      type: DataTypes.INTEGER.UNSIGNED,
      autoIncrement: true,
      primaryKey: true,
    },
    name: {
      type: new DataTypes.STRING(128),
      allowNull: false,
    },
    preferredName: {
      type: new DataTypes.STRING(128),
      allowNull: true,
    },
  },
  {
    tableName: 'users',
    sequelize, // passing the `sequelize` instance is required
  },
);

async function doStuffWithUserModel() {
  const newUser = await User.create({
    name: 'Johnny',
    preferredName: 'John',
  });
  console.log(newUser.id, newUser.name, newUser.preferredName);

  const foundUser = await User.findOne({ where: { name: 'Johnny' } });
  if (foundUser === null) return;
  console.log(foundUser.name);
}

使用 sequelize.define

在 v5 之前的 Sequelize 版本中, 定义模型的默认方式涉及使用 sequelize.define. 仍然可以使用它来定义模型, 也可以使用接口在这些模型中添加类型.

import { Sequelize, Model, DataTypes, Optional } from 'sequelize';

const sequelize = new Sequelize('mysql://root:asd123@localhost:3306/mydb');

// We recommend you declare an interface for the attributes, for stricter typechecking
interface UserAttributes {
  id: number;
  name: string;
}

// Some fields are optional when calling UserModel.create() or UserModel.build()
interface UserCreationAttributes extends Optional<UserAttributes, 'id'> {}

// We need to declare an interface for our model that is basically what our class would be
interface UserInstance
  extends Model<UserAttributes, UserCreationAttributes>,
    UserAttributes {}

const UserModel = sequelize.define<UserInstance>('User', {
  id: {
    primaryKey: true,
    type: DataTypes.INTEGER.UNSIGNED,
  },
  name: {
    type: DataTypes.STRING,
  }
});

async function doStuff() {
  const instance = await UserModel.findByPk(1, {
    rejectOnEmpty: true,
  });
  console.log(instance.id);
}

如果你对模型上非严格的属性检查命令感到满意,则可以通过定义 Instance 来扩展 Model 而无需泛型类型中的任何属性, 从而节省一些代码.

import { Sequelize, Model, DataTypes } from 'sequelize';

const sequelize = new Sequelize('mysql://root:asd123@localhost:3306/mydb');

// We need to declare an interface for our model that is basically what our class would be
interface UserInstance extends Model {
  id: number;
  name: string;
}

const UserModel = sequelize.define<UserInstance>('User', {
  id: {
    primaryKey: true,
    type: DataTypes.INTEGER.UNSIGNED,
  },
  name: {
    type: DataTypes.STRING,
  },
});

async function doStuff() {
  const instance = await UserModel.findByPk(1, {
    rejectOnEmpty: true,
  });
  console.log(instance.id);
}